PIMS AICET 2012 Chemistry Syllabus

Updated on: Mar 20, 2013
PIMS AICET 2012 - Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences Chemistry Syllabus given here-
  • Atomic structure and Nature of Chemical Bond
i. Introduction, electronic theory of valency,limitations.

ii. VB. Theory-postulates, overlapping of atomic orbital.:
  • a. S-S in H2 molecule
  • b. P-P in halogen molecule
  • c. S-P in Hexmolecule
iii. The concept of hybrid orbitals and geometry, of molecules:

a. Tetrahedral (SP3) hybridisation in CH4, NH3, H2 O
b. Trigonal hybridisation (SP2) in BF3, and C2H4
c. Diagonal hybridisation (SP) in BeF, and C2H2

iv. Bond Energy – Average Bond energy, factors affecting bond energy.

v. The uncertainty principle, orbitals and Quantum numbers shapes of orbitals, Electronic configuration of atoms.
  • Chemical Thermodynamics and Energetics :
i. Introduction

ii. Concepts in Thermodynamics-System, isolated, closed and open system, homogeneous and heterogeneous system, Thermodynamic equilibrium, nature and type of processes,isothermal and adiabatic processes, reversible and irreversible processes.

iii. Nature of work and heat, units of energy and work in thermodynamics, work of pressure, volume, maximum work in reversible isothermal process, simple numericalproblems.

iv. First law of Thermodynamics – Relation between mass and energy, internal energy,change in internal energy and mathematical deduction of the first law of thermodynamics.

q = DE+W, simple numerical problems Second law of Thermodynamics: Entropy, free energy, spontaneity of a chemical reaction, free energy change and chemical equilibrium, free energy as energy available for useful work.

v. Enthaply (H) of a system, change in enthaply, mathematical derivation, numerical problem and conversion of DH related to endothermic and exothermic reaction.

vi. Thermochemistry Endothermic and exothermic reaction, heat of reaction, heat of neutralization, Heat of formation DH = [H (Product)-H (Reactant)], effect of temperature on heat of reaction (Kirchoff’s equation), numerical problem.

vii. Internal energy and change in internal energy.

viii. Hess’s Law of constant heat summation – definition and explanation

ix. DH = DHI + DH2 + DH3 + - Numerical problem of Hess’s Law
  • Electrochemistry
i. Introduction

ii. Electrolysis, electrolytic cells

iii. Faraday’s laws of electrolysis, simple numerical problem

iv. Electrochemical cells-Construction, working of simple voltaic cell (Daniel Cell), convention used in S the representation of Galvanic cell, Use of salt bridge, types of electrodes, hydrogen electrode, calomel electrode and measurement of electrode potentials.

v. Concept of electrode potential – electronation and de-electronation (Nerst Theory), S.D.P. and e.m.f of a cell e.m.f. series, its applications, simple numerical problems on e.m.f. of cell

vi. Common types of cell – Dry cell, lead accumulator.
  • Ionic Equilibrium
i. Introduction

ii. Arrhenius theory of acids and bases

iii. Lowry and Bronsted concepts of acids and bases

iv. Lewis concept of acids and bases

v. Strong and weak acid and bases, degree of dissociation, dissociation constant, Ostwald
dilution formula. Simple problems

vi. Ionisation of water, Ionic product of water (Kw)

vii. H ion concentration, pH and pOH – pH + pOH = 14 numerical problems

viii. Common ion effects, Buffer solution, Mechanism of buffer action, solubility product, its application numerical problems on solubility product

ix. Hydrolysis of salts, Hydrolysis constant, Relation between hydrolysis constant and dissociation constant.
  • Adsorption and Colloids
i. Introduction

ii. Adsorption as a surface phenomenon, difference in types of adsorption and absorption, factors affecting adsorption, types of adsorption

iii. Freudlich’s adsorption isotherm, Applications in water purification, catalyst, adsorption indicate and chromatography

iv. Colloids – Introduction, colloidal state of matter disperse phase, dispersion medium, few examples colloidal solutions

v. Preparation of colloidal solutions:

a. Dispersion method (electrical and mechanical)
b. Condensation methods (Oxidation and reduction) Properties of colloidal solutions, general properties, optical properties, mechanical, electrical properties, (electrophoresis and electro osmosis) coagulation.

vi. Gels – Definition, example, types, properties and uses

vii. Emulsion – Definition, example, types (DIW,W/O) properties and uses.

viii. Application of colloids – food, medicine, sewage, precipitation of smoke.
  • Nuclear and Radiochemistry
i. Introduction

ii. Characteristics of nucleons, mass number, atomic number, isotopes and isobars.

iii. Nuclear stability, mass defect, binding energy, average binding energy, simple numerical problems on binding energy.

iv. Radioactivity – Radioactive decay, nature of radiations, radioactive disintegration constant, half life period, mathematical derivation for the decay constant – and half life (t1/2), simple numerical problems, Artificial radioactivity and artificial transmutation of elements.

v. Nuclear reactions. Radio isotopes and their uses-carbon dating, production of synthetic elements, medicine, agriculture.
  • Chemistry of Third Row Elements
i. Introduction

ii. Position of third row elements in periodic table

iii. Electronic Configuration

iv. Periodic trend – reducing and oxidizing characters, ionisation potential; electropositive and electronegative character and hence metallic and non-metallic character

v. Nature of bonding in crystal lattice

vi. Explanation of properties of metallic solids conductivity, metallic lustre, malleability,ductility

vii. Acidic and basic character of oxides and hydroxy compounds of third row elements.
Hydorgen – Position in periodic table, isotopes, properties, reaction and uses. Oxygen-Postion in periodic table, preparation, reaction uses, ozone. Water and hydrogen peroxide structure of Water molecule, physical and chemical properties of water, hard and soft water.
Hydrogen peroxides-Preparation, properties, structure and uses. Nitrogen-Preparation,
properties, uses, compounds of nitrogen.
  • Fluorine and Hydrogen Fluoride
i. Introduction

ii. Position of halogens in-periodic table,electronic-configuration; general principles of halogens

iii. Fluorine – Occurrence, preparation, properties, reaction and uses

iv. Hydrogen – fluoride and hydrofluoric acid – preparation, properties, reactions and uses
  • Silicon
i. Introduction
ii. Position of silicon in periodic table, electronic configuration
iii. Silicon – occurrence, preparation, properties and uses
iv. Silicates, structure of simple silicates, nature of Si-O bond, tetrahedral geometry of
Si04 units in silicates.
  • Halogen Derivatives of Alkanes
i. Introduction
ii. Classification, Mono, di, tri and tetrahalogen derivatives of alkanes
iii. Monohalogen derivatives (alkyl halides)
a. Nomenclature – Trivial and I.U.P.A.C. system
b. Preparation
  • Halogenation of alkanes.
i. Addition of Hx to alkanes
ii. Action of P and PXs to Sod2 on alcohols (Ethyl bromide C2H5Br to be taken as a
iii. representative member)
iv. Reactions of alkyl halides
a. Substitution reactions with : Alkalies, KCN, Ammonia, Sodium alkoxide, RCOOAg
b. Wurtz reaction
c. Formation of Grignards reagent
d. Elimination – Action of alcoholic KOH
v. A. Introduction of Homolytic and heterolytic fission
  • Explanation of fission taking compound A-B
1. A-B 0 A+B Homolytic
2. A-BO A+B- Heterolytic

B. Types of reagents

1. Electrophillic with suitable examples
2. Nucleuophillic with suitable examples

C. Mobility of electrons in single and double bonds

1. Inductive effect
2. Electromeric effect

vi. SN1 and SN2 reaction mechanism:
a. Mechanism of alkaline hydrolysis of methyl bromide (SN2 mechanism )
b) Alkaline hydrolysis oft – Butyl bromide (SN1 mechanism)

vii. Optical activity:

Following points are to be emphasised:

Polarisation of light by Nicol prism
Asymmetric carbon atom
Optically active (compounds, definition with example of lactic acid (Dextro, Laevo and Racemic forms)
Optically activity of 2 – chlorobutane to be discussed on the following points Presence
of asymmetric Carbon atom

Two non-superimposable mirror image structures

A mixture and its optical inactivity.
viii. Dihalogen Derivatives:

Preparation of C2H4Cl2

Two isomers
a. Ethylene dichloride
b. Ethylidene chloride
Preparation of ethylene dichloride by
a. Addition of CI2- to ethene
b. Ethylene glycol and PCl5
Preparation of ethylidene chloride from
a. Acetaldehyde and PCl5
b. Acetylene and HCl
ix. Trihalogen Derivatives of CH4:
Preparation of chloroform and Iodoform
General physical and chemical properties
a. Reduction,
b. Oxidation,
c. Hydrolysis,
d. Carbylamine reaction
e. Action of HNO3
  • Organic Hydroxy Compounds
i. Introduction
Alcohols – introduction – classification
1. Trivial system,
2. I.U.P.A.C. system
  • Preparation method
Hydrolysis of alkyl halides
Hydration of Alkene by acid Reduction of
Aldehydes and ketones by
a. Catalytic method using Nickel
b. Na-Hg/H2O
  • Properties and Reactions :
General Physical and Chemical Properties
Reaction with :
a. Na, Hx, PCB,PCI5
b. Dehydration
c. Oxidation of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols

ii. Phenols :

Aromatic hydroxy compounds – Phenol as a representative compound
a. Chlorobenzene
b. Benzene Sulphonic acid
c. Cumene

iii. Physical properties and chemical reactions
a. Halogenation,
b. Nitration,
c. Sulphonation
Distinction between alcohol and phenol, uses of phenol
  • Aldehydes and Ketones
i. Introduction
ii. Preparation
Oxidation of alcohols
Hydrolysis of gemdihalides
From Grignard reagent,
From calcium salt of acids
iii. Reactions :
a. Addition to carbonyl compounds

HCN, NaHCO3, NH3, Grignard’s reagent

b. Condensation reactions – (NH20H), C6H5NH-NH2
c. Aldol condensation, Acetaldehyde with dil alkali, similar reactions with ketones.
d. Cannizzaro’s reaction – Action of conc.NaOH on formaldehyde
e. Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones, catalytic hydro genation
f. Reducing properties of Aldehydes Fehling solution, Tollen’s reagent, Schiff’s reagent
  • Acids and Esters
i. Introduction
ii. Preparation(acids)
a. Oxidation of primary alcohols, aldehyde
b. Hydrolysis of alkyl cyanides
c. Grignard reagent and CO2
iii. Reactions:
a. Acidic properties
b. Antyride formation by using P2O5
c. Ester formation
iv. Amide formation
v. Esters
a. Introduction
b. Preparation: Acid and Alcohol, Alcohol and acid anhydride Alcohol And acid chloride Alkylhalide and Agsalt of acid
c. Reaction of ethylacetate Hydrolysis with acid and alkali Action ofGrignard reagent Uses of esters
  • Ethers
i. Introduction
ii. Definition: Classification, simple and mixed ethers Preparations:
a. Williamson’s synthesis
b. Continuous etherification process
c. Alcohol and Diazomethane
iii. Physical and chemical properties :
a. Action of HI on simple and mixed either in cold and hot
b. Hydrolysis by dil. H2SO4 uses of diethyl ether
  • Amines
i. Introduction
ii. Definition: Classification-Nomenclature
iii. Preparation
a. Haloalkanes and Ammonia
b. Reduction of Oxime, nitriles and nitroalkanes.
iv. Properties:Physical and chemical
a. Basic nature on the basis of Lewis concept
b. Acetylation by acetyl chloride and acetic an hydride
c. Action of HNO2 on primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
d. Methylation of primary, secondary and tertiary amines yielding quaternary ammonium salts
  • Carbohydrates, Proteins and Fats
i. Introduction

ii. Carbohydrates: Classification, mono, di and polysaccharide, preparation of glucose from sucrose and starch.

iii. Proteins: Classification, simple, conjugated and derived proteins. Hydrolysis of proteins to produce amino acids peptide linkage Colour tests: 1) Biuret test, 2) Millon’s test

iv. Fats and Oils:

Glycerol- as a trihydroxy alcohol, fatty acid esters of glycerol with fatty acids Saponification, Hydrogenation.
  • Synthetic Fibres
i. Introduction,

ii. Definition of fibres: Classification as natural and artificial fibres

iii. Preparation: properties and uses of Nylon 6, Nylon 66. Terylene, teflon, PVC, Polystyrene.

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